Nitendra Gautam

Programming in Scala

Scala is a general-purpose programming language providing support for functional programming and a strong static type system.

Scala Collections

Scala provides several collection classes

Base Classes

  • Iterable (Collections that be iterated)
  • Sequence ( Consist of Ordered Sequences)
  • Set
  • Map (look up data structure)

Immutable Collections

  • List (Linked List provides fast sequential Access)
  • Stream (Same like List except that tail is evaluated on Demand)
  • Vector( Array Like type ,implemented as tree of Blocks which provides fast random Access)
  • Range (Ordered Sequence of Integers with equal Spacing)
  • String (Java type implicitly Converted to a character sequence ,so you can treat every string like Seq[Char] )
  • Map (Collection that maps keys to Values)
  • Set ( Collection without duplicate elements )

Mutable Collections

  • Array (Scala arrays are native JVM arrays at run time ,therefore they are very performant)
  • Scala also has mutable maps and sets which should only be used if there are performance issues with Immutable types

Scala List vs Array

List is an immutable recursive data structure whilst array is a sequential mutable data structure.

Arrays are mutable objects, you can’t change the length of an array after it is instantiated. You can change its element values.

val scalaArray1 = Array("zero","one","two")
val scalaArray2 = Array.apply("zero","one","two") //Same as Above

//Updating the element in Array

Tuples in Scala

A tuple is a container for storing two or more data types. As it is immutable it cannot be modified after it has been created

val twoElementsTuple = ("10",true)
val threeElementsTuple = ("10","Nitendra",true)

Tuple is useful when we want to Group non-related elements.

To access elements in tuple we use one based Index.

val firstElement = twoElementsTuple._1 val secondElement = twoElementsTuple._2

Map vs FlatMap in Scala

In Scalamap applies functions to all the Element in the collections. We typically use it to iterate over a list, performing an operation on each element and adding the result to a new list. map returns associated value by wrapping in Some.

flatMap also applies functions to all the element in the List but returns a sequence of for each element in the List.flatMap flattens the data from the input List

scala> val animalList = List("Dog","Cat","Hamster")
animalList: List[String] = List(Dog, Cat, Hamster)

res1: List[String] = List(DOG, CAT, HAMSTER)

scala> animalList.flatMap(_.toUpperCase)
res2: List[Char] = List(D, O, G, C, A, T, H, A, M, S, T, E, R)

Scala Collections

Collections is a container data structure which contains zero or more elements.


A List is a linear sequence of elements of the same data type. It is a recursive and immutable data structure which cannot be mofied after creating it .

scala> List(1,2,4).map(_ *2)
res5: List[Int] = List(2, 4, 8)

Following are the basic operations on a list

  • Fetching the first element using a method named head.
  • Fetching all the elements except the first element. For this operation, the List class provides a method named tail.
  • Checking whether a list is empty. This is done by using a method named isEmpty which returns true if a list is empty.
val numList = List(10 ,20,30,50)
val rangeList = (1 to 100).toList
val arrList = Array(2,5,10).toList


An Array is an indexed sequence of same type of elements.It is a mutable flat data structure in which element in an array can be updated.But we cannot add any new element to existing Array after it has been created .

scala> Array(2,5,6).map(x => x *2)
res6: Array[Int] = Array(4, 10, 12)

// Create new Array
scala> var arr = Array(10,20,30 ,40,50,60)
arr: Array[Int] = Array(10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60)

//Get first Elements of Array
scala> arr(0)
res0: Int = 10

//Assign 50 as first Element
scala> arr(0) = 50

//Value of first Element Changed
scala> arr
res2: Array[Int] = Array(50, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60)


It is an unordered collection of distinct elements which does not contains duplicate elements.

scala> Set(2,4,6).map(_ + 3)
res7: scala.collection.immutable.Set[Int] = Set(5, 7, 9)


scala> val numberRange = 0 until 10
numberRange: scala.collection.immutable.Range = Range 0 until 10

scala> _ * 2)
res8: scala.collection.immutable.IndexedSeq[Int] = Vector(0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18)

String Data Type

scala> "Hello World".map { _.toUpper}
res11: String = HELLO WORLD


It is used to flatten the collection so that unnecessary nesting can be removed

scala> List(List(3,4,5),List(4,9,8)).flatten
res12: List[Int] = List(3, 4, 5, 4, 9, 8)


//Filter over a List with some condition 
scala> List(1,2,3).flatMap { x => if( x >2 ) List() else List(x) }
res13: List[Int] = List(1, 2)


Scala Documentation